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智慧經濟創新 注入公民魂 (2017-03-01 IEK產業情報網 )

With an increasingly concentrated population and urbanization, urban governance is facing more and more challenges and problems. There is a need for various intelligent solutions to solve these civic problems. This has led to the rise of the “smart city.”
From the perspective of population, it is estimated that the global urban population will reach 6.3 billion by 2050, accounting for 70% of the world’s population. Among which, 29 cities will be megacities with over 10 million people. Therefore, the planning and construction of the smart city has become a topic that cannot be ignored. This is also the key to drive the city’s growth.
The construction of the smart city not only changes the efficiency and quality of urban operation, but also creates economic value. According to the World Bank’s estimate, the wealth of a city of over one million people can be increased by 2 to 2.5 fold under the same investment if it is turned into a smart city with 85% actual utilization. Such an increase is due to the wide range of aspects and projects involved in the development of a smart city. As a leading industry, it can drive the innovation and upgrading of other industries.
In terms of applications, the scope of the smart city includes transportation, energy, medical care, education, safety, construction, urban governance and smart government. And since it is highly correlated to many industries, it has become an opportunity to promote further economic development.
However, the development pattern of the smart city, as well as the problems it brings and the solutions required have changed significantly in recent years. Compared to the capital-based “industrial economy” of traditional cities, the development of early smart cities focused on the construction of a digital environment by information and network technology so that more people could be connected to improve their life quality and achieve sustainable development. It was a “digital economy,” more like the concept of an information city.
In addition to the continuous use of information and communication technologies, the modern smart city pays more attention to the integration and analysis of knowledge generated and other applications for solving urban problems, i.e., towards the development of a “smart economy.”
With the emphasis on smart application, the development of the current smart city also displays different trends and characteristics. First, it is “people-centered,” i.e., the direction of the development of the smart city is driven by the problems local citizens wish to solve. Solutions and supporting mechanisms for industries are therefore put forward for the promotion of urban growth.
For example, the Smart London Project, which was launched in 2011, focused on traffic congestion, healthcare, social services and education in the face of future population growth. The focuses of development were on the construction of basic infrastructures for network connection, information platforms and civil participation.
In the past, smart city projects were usually led by large companies. New Songdo International City Development LLC (NSIC), for instance, was established for the “u-KOREA” project proposed by Songdo, South Korea in 2003, and big corporations from South Korea and the United States were introduced.
The planning of present day smart cities focuses on expanding civil participation, hoping to combine the power of people in joint development and value creation, including listening to a wider variety of voices and collection of opinions, making citizens become the source of innovation and added-value, and encouraging start-up companies or small and medium enterprises to promote solutions.
In response to the needs of smart applications, such as to sense, collect and analyze a wide range of environmental information, the construction of a city-level Internet of Things has become a necessary aspect of smart cities.
More attention will be paid to various communication and integration technologies between network and equipment as well as Low Power Wide Area network (LPWAN) technology that can meet the requirements of long distance, wide coverage, low power consumption and small data volume on a city-wide scale. With the support they could offer to smart city operation, they will become an important trend under the development of the smart city.
When developing smart cities in Taiwan, we should think from the perspective of solving local problems, field verification and turnkey solutions instead of just accepting any projects related to cities or providing similar solutions for all cities. For example, the six major cities in Taiwan all have different lifestyles and their own pressing issues, such as an aging society, a low carbon city, food and drug safety, disaster prevention and efficient transportation. Each city can establish their own features and core competences in smart applications based on local lifestyles and problems as well as the related construction and testing.
As to the mechanism, one solution would be to adopt the 4P (Public-Private-People Partnership) model so that the government, enterprises, research institutions and the public can cooperate across different industries and fields, or even by the establishment of joint ventures, to establish an innovation center for smart city solutions.
At the same time, based on an international approach and experience in promoting smart cities, it is essential to expand the participation of people and enterprises, for instance, through competitions, so that innovative smart city solutions will be proposed and an open city platform with cross-application will be established for the public and industries in Taiwan.
In response to the smart city’s diverse needs and solutions, it will be necessary to build a user application ecosystem which verifies solutions through business operations and implements innovative technologies. This will involve the establishment of a division of labor in industries, including the corporation’s focus on technology R&D and horizontal connections, enterprise-led business services, and problem-oriented vertical application solutions. It will also be necessary to strengthen the testing of its industrialization as part of a continuous improvement process which is closer to the actual commercial operation.
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