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他山之石-借鏡德國革新思維 預見台灣電網發展 (2019-03-28 IEK產業情報網 )

Germany has supported the development of renewable energy since 1990. With the support of a series of policies, Germany has successfully driven the rapid growth of renewable energy. However, as the proportion of renewable energy contributing to total electricity continues to rise, the impact on and challenges for the existing power grids is gradually emerging.
According to the data from the Federal Network Agency of Germany, the proportion of renewable energy has grown rapidly. The grid operators have needed to increase the re-dispatch time from 1,588 hours in 2010 to 15,811 hours in 2015, equivalent to 1.8 hours of re-dispatch for every day of the year to balance the power demand and supply in northern and southern Germany. The re-dispatch cost increased from 48 million euros in 2010 to 410 million euros in 2015. These high costs will be passed on to the electricity end-users.
Germany has promoted power of grid transformation to suit the needs of domestic energy transformation and in response to EU policy. In January 2013, Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft (Federal Energy and Water Association of Germany) proposed a blueprint for developing a smart grid for 2022, which has become an important basis for the German government to plan the future grid development. In addition, in order to enable the flexible use of big data on power and accelerate innovation in the energy industry while taking into account information security, the German government passed the Gesetze zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende (Act on Digitization of Energy Transformation) in 2016 as a regulatory guideline for the development of energy digitalization.



Germany plans to promote a three-stage power grid transformation to improve the stability and reliability of power supply
Germany’s smart grid plan is divided into three phases. The first phase (2012 to 2014) was the initial and preparatory phase. The main task was to review the existing laws and regulatory system, and form a basis for improving standards and regulatory measures through R&D and demonstration plans. The second phase (2014 to 2018) was the design and construction phase, which gradually introduced the smart grid technology, and established and adapted new grid operating procedures and transaction mechanisms. The third phase (2018 to 2022) is the phase for realization and market, allowing flexible management of power generation and consumption, and the establishment of power market rules that can accommodate new products and services and reinforce information transparency in the power market. Finally, water, electricity, gas and heating/cooling can be integrated, and the smart grid technology and concept can be expanded to the whole energy grid.
In order to confirm the feasibility of new technologies and business models, the German government has constructively rewarded demonstration projects throughout the country. The most famous demonstration projects include the first national demonstration project, E-Energy, launched in 2008, renewable energy and electric vehicle grid connection demonstration, IREME and IREN2 led by Siemens, and the power grid management and energy showcase: Digital Agenda for the Energy Transition (SINTEG) launched in 2017.
SINTEG is an extension of the E-Energy project. It integrates the base demonstration projects, such as E-Energy and IREME with the goal of achieving 100% renewable energy. In January 2015, the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) released the Smart Energy Showcases - Digital Agenda for the Energy Transition (SINTEG) funding program. Five regions were selected as demonstration locations in 2016, and the four-year program was officially launched in 2017. The BMWi provided a fund of up to 200 million euros for the five demonstration projects, attracting more than 300 companies and science and research institutions to participate in this program. It is expected to drive corporate investment of more than 300 million euros.
The SINTEG program requires the demonstration areas to develop an energy supply system that is climate-friendly, efficient and safe, and can accommodate a high proportion of renewable energy, while achieving five objectives: (1) ensure the safety and efficiency of grid operation under the condition of high renewable energy proportion; (2) increase the efficiency and flexible application between grid and power market; (3) promote efficient and safe cooperation among participants in the smart grid; (4) efficiently use the existing grid structure; (5) reduce the need for grid construction, especially in the distribution network. The key demonstrations include the application of intelligent technologies, such as ICT, in all aspects of the grid, a stable regional grid system that can accommodate a high proportion of renewable energy, the establishment of an information exchange platform for generation/load and grid, and the development of innovative business models.
There are two points that Taiwan can learn from Germany’s grid management and promotion of grid modernization:

The future grid must pay more attention to the flexible interaction between grid, electricity market and consumers.
From Germany’s experience, we can see that stable and reliable power supply becomes a big challenge when the proportion of renewable energy increases. Therefore, the transformation of the power grid in Germany is no longer confined to the improvement of power grid technology, but includes the development of new market mechanisms and business models to enhance the flexible application between power grid and electricity market. Moreover, as the demand side management becomes more important, the electricity end users no longer play passive roles. In the future, active management and two-way interaction is required for both power supply and demand.

Modernization of the grid by combining IoT, big data analysis and artificial intelligence technology
The future grid system must be able to integrate and flexibly manage renewable energy, gas, energy storage, demand response and electric vehicles, and the operation and management of the grid system will become far more complex. Therefore, modernization of the grid, the enhanced ability to analyze, interpret real-time grid system data and decision-making have become an international trend. IoT, big data analysis, the combination of AI and the grid have become an important technical development direction of power grid modernization. Looking to the future, the eco-chain of the power industry is no longer limited to power companies and traditional heavy-duty operators. IoT, big data analysis and AI will play an increasingly important role in the power system.
本文原刊載於IEK產業情報網,著作權為工研院產科國際所所有。
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